Chemistry: Elements, Compound and Mixtures

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Pure substances
Any material that is not a mixture, is called a pure substance. Pure substances include elements and compounds. It is much more difficult to break down pure substances into their parts, and complex chemical methods are needed to do this.
We can use melting and boiling points and chromatography to test for pure substances. Pure substances have a sharply defined (one temperature) melting or boiling point. Impure substances have a temperature range over which they melt or boil. Chromatography is the process of separating substances into their individual components. If a substance is pure then chromatography will only produce one substance at the end of the process. If a substance is impure then several substances will be seen at the end of the process.
Recommended practical activity: Smartie chromatography
You will need:
• filter paper (or blotting paper)
• some smarties in different colours
• water
• an eye dropper.
Place a smartie in the centre of a piece of filter paper. Carefully drop a few drops of water onto the smartie, until the smartie is quite wet and there is a ring of water on the filter paper. After some time you should see a coloured ring on the paper around the smartie. This is because the food colouring that is used to make the smartie colourful dissolves in the water and is carried through the paper away from the smartie.
Smartie chromatography
Elements
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An element is a chemical substance that can’t be divided or changed into other chemical substances by any ordinary chemical means. The smallest unit of an element is the atom.
Definition: Element
An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances through chemical means.
There are 112112 officially named elements and about 118118 known elements. Most of these are natural, but some are man-made. The elements we know are represented in the periodic table, where each element is abbreviated to a chemical symbol. The table below gives the first 2020 elements and some of the common transition metals.
Did You Know?
Recently it was agreed that two more elements would be added to the list of officially named elements. These are elements number 114114 and 116116. The proposed name for element 114114 is flerovium and for element 116116 it is moscovium. This brings the total number of officially named elements to 114114.
Element name
Element symbol
Element name
Element symbol
Hydrogen
HH
Phosphorus
PP
Helium
HeHe
Sulfur
SS
Lithium
LiLi
Chlorine
ClCl
Beryllium
BeBe
Argon
ArAr
Boron
BB
Potassium
KK
Carbon
CC
Calcium
CaCa
Nitrogen
NN
Iron
FeFe
Oxygen
OO
Nickel
NiNi
Fluorine
FF
Copper
CuCu
Neon
NeNe
Zinc
ZnZn
Sodium
NaNa
Silver
AgAg
Magnesium
MgMg
Platinum
PtPt
Aluminium
AlAl
Gold
AuAu
Silicon
SiSi
Mercury
HgHg
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Table: List of the first 20 elements and some common transition metals
Compounds
A compound is a chemical substance that forms when two or more different elements combine in a fixed ratio. Water (H2OH2O), for example, is a compound that is made up of two hydrogen atoms for every one oxygen atom. Sodium chloride (NaClNaCl) is a compound made up of one sodium atom for every chlorine atom. An important characteristic of a compound is that it has a chemical formula, which describes the ratio in which the atoms of each element in the compound occur.
Definition: Compound
A substance made up of two or more different elements that are joined together in a fixed ratio.
The figure below might help you to understand the difference between the terms element, mixture and compound. Iron (FeFe) and sulfur (SS) are two elements. When they are added together, they form a mixture of iron and sulfur. The iron and sulfur are not joined together. However, if the mixture is heated, a new compound is formed, which is called iron sulfide (FeSFeS).
A mixture of iron and sulfur
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A model of the iron sulfide crystal
Note:
The first figure above showed a submicroscopic representation of a mixture. In a submicroscopic representation we use circles to represent different elements. To show a compound, we draw several circles joined together. Mixtures are simply shown as two or more individual elements in the same box. The circles are not joined for a mixture.
We can also use symbols to represent elements, mixtures and compounds. The symbols for the elements are all found on the periodic table. Compounds are shown as two or more element names written right next to each other. Subscripts may be used to show that there is more than one atom of a particular element. (e.g.H2OH2O or NH3NH3). Mixtures are written as: a mixture of element (or compound) A and element (or compound) B. (e.g. a mixture of FeFe and SS).
Example: Mixtures and Pure Substances
Question
For each of the following substances state whether it is a pure substance or a mixture. If it is a mixture, is it homogeneous or heterogeneous? If it is a pure substance is it an element or a compound?
1. Blood (which is made up from plasma and cells)
2. Argon
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3. Silicon dioxide (SiO2SiO2)
4. Sand and stones
Step 1: Apply the definitions
An element is found on the periodic table, so we look at the periodic table and find that only argon appears there. Next we decide which are compounds and which are mixtures. Compounds consist of two or more elements joined in a fixed ratio. Sand and stones are not elements, neither is blood. But silicon is, as is oxygen. Finally we decide whether the mixtures are homogeneous or heterogeneous. Since we cannot see the separate components of blood it is homogeneous. Sand and stones are heterogeneous.
Step 2: Write the answer
1. Blood is a homogeneous mixture.
2. Argon is a pure substance. Argon is an element.
3. Silicon dioxide is a pure substance. It is a compound.
4. Sand and stones form a heterogeneous mixture.
Optional Activity: Using models to represent substances
The following substances are given:
• Air (consists of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapour)
• Hydrogen gas (H2H2)
• Neon gas
• Steam
• Ammonia gas (NH3NH3)
1. Use coloured balls to build models for each of the substances given.
2. Classify the substances according to elements, compounds, homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixture, pure substance, impure substance.
3. Draw submicroscopic representations for each of the above examples.
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Mixtures
We see mixtures all the time in our everyday lives. A stew, for example, is a mixture of different foods such as meat and vegetables; sea water is a mixture of water, salt and other substances, and air is a mixture of gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen.
Definition: Mixture
A mixture is a combination of two or more substances, where these substances are not bonded (or joined) to each other and no chemical reaction occurs between the substances.
In a mixture, the substances that make up the mixture:
• are not in a fixed ratio
Imagine, for example, that you have 250250 mLmL of water and you add sand to the water. It doesn’t matter whether you add 2020 gg, 4040 gg, 100100 gg or any other mass of sand to the water; it will still be called a mixture of sand and water.
• keep their physical properties
In the example we used of sand and water, neither of these substances has changed in any way when they are mixed together. The sand is still sand and the water is still water.
• can be separated by mechanical means
To separate something by “mechanical means”, means that there is no chemical process involved. In our sand and water example, it is possible to separate the mixture by simply pouring the water through a filter. Something physical is done to the mixture, rather than something chemical.
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We can group mixtures further by dividing them into those that are heterogeneous and those that are homogeneous.

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