commerce: Meaning of Occupation, Types and Factors


Occupation is a business or what someone does to earn a living. Somehow, we all must engage in one job or another at some point in order to meet our needs.

These are various kinds of work that a person can do to earn a decent living. Some occupations involve extracting resources from the soil and water e.g. farming, fishing, mining or changing the form of raw materials to finish goods or semi-finished goods e.g. manufacturing, extraction and construction. Others are service provides. E.g. Police, Doctors, etc.

Classification of Occupation

Occupations are classified based on the nature of work. Occupation basically has THREE categories.

  • Industrial Occupation
  • Commercial Occupation
  • Services
  1. Industrial Occupation: This involves people who are engaged in the physical production of goods. They also include the assembling and putting of component parts together to make it whole.

The following is a list of industrial occupations. These individuals are generally characterised by being manual-labour-intensive and requiring little or no formal education.

  • Auto mechanic
  • Beader
  • Bobbin boy
  • Clerk of the Chapel
  • Filling station attendant
  • Foreman
  • Maintenance engineering
  • Mechanic
  • Miller
  • Moldmaker
  • Panel beater
  • Patternmaker
  • Plant operator
  • Plumber
  • Sawfiler
  • Shop foreman
  • Soaper
  • Stationary engineer
  1. Commercial Occupation: This set of people is engaged in all commercial activities associated with finished products from the industrial sector. They include: Traders, transporters, bankers, etc.
  2. Service Occupation: These are people who render services to people or companies. They are not directly involved in actual production of goods. Examples include Civil servants, Police, Lawyers, Cleaners, etc.

Factors That Determine Types of Occupation

  1. Climate and weather differences
  2. Education, Skill and Training
  3. Natural Resources
  4. Salary and Wages
  5. Government Policy
  6. Industrial hazards
  7. Religious Influences
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